Fahling: Only on one occasion had Jesus come into public conflict with the Sadducees, when, characteristically, they had asked of Him a sign from heaven (Matthew 16:1).
Ylvisaker: The Sadducees were aristocratic rationalists and unspiritual materialists who denied the resurrection and the retribution after death, because they refused to believe in the immortality of the soul, even as they also denied the existence of angels and of any spirit.
This debate with the Sadducees took place on Tuesday of Holy Week.
"Who say there is no" in the Greek is "Deny that there is not . . . ." or as we would say: "Deny that there is. . . ." They cite Deuteronomy 25:5ff, though not accurately. Perhaps they fabricated this account on the basis of Tobit 3:9.
The word "man" us used three times in this sentence:
The deceased brother;
The surviving brother;
The deceased brother.
This is a hypothetical case.
For this we would likely used hypotaxis: "When they died."
"Since" is "we ask this because."
This verse is axiomatic. The principle of "marrying and being given in marriage" is true of all people of this age, be they regenerate or unregenerate. And, it hardly needs to be said that Jesus is stating the rule, not the exception.
"Those who are considered worthy," wherever this verb is used in the New Testament (Luke 20:35; 21:36; Acts 5:41; 2 Thessalonians 1:5) it is always passive voice and the subjects are always God's children. God deems them worthy, not vice versa.
Phillips: But those who are considered worthy of reaching that world, which means rising from the dead, etc.
This verse, of course, is speaking only of people in everlasting life. Evidently the Sadducees who posed this situation assumed that the seven men and the woman went to everlasting life. Jesus says of them that "they neither marry nor are given in marriage."
This verse begins with to short clauses. The first is causal and the second is explanatory: "because they can no longer die, you see they are like angels." In other words, IMMORTALITY lies at the heart of the whole matter. Where there is immortality there's no reason for marriage. And the only point of comparison between saints in heaven and angels is their common immortality.
Then follows: "And they are God's people because they are resurrection people." In this one verse Jesus teaches His opponents three lessons:
In heaven people are immortal and, therefore, do no longer marry.
There are angels, in fact, the redeemed in heaven are like the angels in that they are immortal. (Jesus is not saying that angels are sexual or that the redeemed in heaven are no longer male or female.)
The resurrection to life (which Jesus' opponents denied) is proof of being God's child.
"In the passage about the bush." When Exodus 3:6 was spoken to Moses, we know that Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob had been dead for centuries, that is, from man's point of view.
"God" is not the subject. It is in the predicate. The two genitives are adjectival and genitive of relationship. The use of the adjectival genitive straightens out their wrong thinking on what kind of God God really is. The second genitive, relationship, clearly shows that He is not a dead people's God. "All the redeemed in heaven are alive from His point of view." AAT: "All who are with Him are alive." There are no dead people in heaven.
Some of the Scribes are gleeful over the way Jesus answered the Sadducees.
This verse explains verse 39. Luke makes an observation. Note how emphatic the negative is. It is doubled. The subject is, of course, the Sadducees. Jesus' answer was so final that they dared ask no more questions.
Lenski: The old trick of playing one word of Scripture (one that seems to suit our error) against some great doctrine of Scripture, buttressed by a number of Scripture statements, was practiced already in the days of the Sadducees. . . . The Sadducees had appealed to the Scriptures (like Satan in 4:10-11), falsely; Jesus now crushes this appeal by himself appealing to the Scriptures (as in 4:12), truly. The Scriptures ARE the true court of appeal.
Ylvisaker: It is evident that Jesus here argues from the point of view that everything in Holy Writ, not only the subject-matter, the content, but also the form, is inspired. If it were not so, He would never place such emphasis on the mere form of tense. Jesus likewise teaches in this passage that 'consequence from Scripture, if rightly deduced, must be received as Scripture.'
On the resurrection in the Old Testament compare Job 19:26; Psalm 16:9,11; Isaiah 26:19; 25:8; Daniel 12:1ff. Then compare Hebrews 11:10,13,14,16,35 and especially verse 19: "Accounting that God was able to raise him (Isaac) up, even from the dead."
In Eden Adam and Eve were not able to die. Genesis 2:17. Because of the fall, people are no longer able not to die. Romans 5:12. In everlasting life people are no longer able to die. Luke 20:36; 1 Corinthians 15:42-57.
What is harmonious to the believer is contradictory to the unbeliever. Look at Hebrews 11:19. On this entire pericope look at John 5:24-29; 10:27-29; 11:23-27.